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Yamba accommodation january 2019 full

Term
List the three primary sensory corticies
Definition
1. Somatosensory
2. Auditory
3. Visual
Term
What is the only specific sense that does not relay through the thalamus?
Definition
Olfaction
Term
Define the Unimodal sensory association cortex
Definition
Association cortex that integrates information related to a single sense. (For example, for somatosensory sensation this cortex would integrate information from touch, hair, and pain receptors from widespread regions, to determine whether there is massage or being punched.)
Term
What are the three unimodal sensory corticies?
Definition
1. Somatosensory
2. Auditory
3. Visual
Term
Define the Unimodal motor association cortex
Definition
Made up of the premotor and supplementary motor regions, this cortex provides integration for the motor system
Term
Define multimodal association cortex
Definition
Cortex that “associates” or integrates multiple senses. Relates sensory input to motor output. Performs the analysis function between sensory input and motor output (e.g., think about sensory input to decide motor output).
Term
What are the three multimodal association cortices?
Definition
1. Posterior association area
2. Anterior association area
3. Limbic association area
Term
Describe the posterior association area
Definition
Located at the borders of the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes, this area integrates information from several sensory modalities to, for example, provide a complete depiction of an object (e.g., for a baby’s rattle, this would integrate the shape, color, texture, and sound of the object).
Term
Describe the anterior association area
Definition
Located in the prefrontal cortex, this area is responsible for thinking, and planning movement. This area decides what to do in response to sensory input.
Term
Describe the limbic association area
Definition
Located in the limbic structures (medial aspect of brain), this region is concerned with emotional responses and formation of memories.
Term
List the flow of information from sensory input to motor output
Definition
Sensory receptors →
Primary sensory cortex →
Unimodal sensory association cortex →
Posterior and limbic association areas →
Anterior association area →
Unimodal motor association area →
Primary motor cortex →
Skeletal muscle movement
Term
How is the dominant hemisphere commonly defined?
Definition
By the location of propositional speech and language capabilities
Term
Which hemisphere controls propositional speech?
Definition
Left side (in 90-99% of right handed people and 60% of left handed)
Term
What abilities does the right hemisphere control?
Definition
Spatial abilities and non-verbal tasks, such as music, map reading, place learning.
Term
What association areas are the language centers part of?
Definition
The language centers involve the superior and posterior regions of the temporal lobe, the inferior portion of the frontal lobe, and the inferior portion of the parietal lobe. Thus, these areas are part of the posterior and anterior association areas.
Term
Even though the left hemisphere controls propositional speech, why is the right hemisphere also important in communication?
Definition
Right side of cortex in speech areas mainly influences prosody, the changes in stress, pitch, and rhythm of speech.
Term
Define aphasia
Definition
Language disorder resulting from brain damage, not necessarily related to sensory or motor deficits
Term
Describe motor aphasias and what area is damaged
Definition
Damage to Broca's aphasia

Can understand language but have problems generating words. Patients are aware of their speech problem.

Term
Describe sensory aphasias and what area is damaged
Definition
Damage to Wernicke's area

Inability to understand language, but can speak words fluently (though they do not make sense).
Patients are generally unaware of their deficit.

Term
Define conduction aphasia
Definition
Conduction aphasias occur from a functional disconnection between Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas (e.g., damage to the arcuate fasciculus).

Person is fluent and can comprehend, but cannot repeat words well. Also may substitute wrong words for correct ones.

Term
Define global aphasias
Definition
Global aphasias include characteristics of sensory, motor, and conduction, and indicate lesion to all the major language centers.
Term
How much information can be stored in short-term/working/sensory/primary memory?
Definition
About 7 "chunks" of information
Term
Define explicit memory. What are the two components?
Definition
Memories for facts and events. To recall the memory you must consciously think about it.

Includes semantic and episodic memory

Term
Define semantic memory
Definition
Part of explicit memory

General basis of knowledge that an individual has. Memory for facts.

Term
Define episodic memory
Definition
Part of explicit memory

Recollection of an individual’s experiences as they happened in a place and time. Memory for events.

Term
Define implicit memory.
Definition
This category includes memories that are “recalled” unconsciously. Implicit memories are usually not lost unless there is damage to large areas of cerebral cortex.
Term
What are the four categories of implicit memory?
Definition
1. Procedural
2. Priming
3. Nonassociative
4. Associative
Term
Define procedural memory
Definition
A category of implicit memory

Knowledge of how to do things

Ex. Motor learning, like typing

Term
Define priming (as it relates to memory)
Definition
A category of implicit memory

Previous exposure to something allows you to recall it quicker the next time you see it, although you have no specific recollection of seeing the object before.

Term
Define nonassociative memory
Definition
A category of implicit memory

The person learns aspects of a single stimulus. A memory does not depend on a relationship between what is learned and another stimulus.

Term
Define habituation
Definition
A form of nonassociative memory

Stimulus is learned to not be important

Ex. getting used to surrounding traffic

Term
Define sensitization
Definition
A form of nonassociative memory

Response to a stimulus gets larger with each repetition. Stimulus is strong and threatening.

Ex. a baby crying

Term
Define associative memory
Definition
A category of implicit memory

Requires a relationship between a memory and a stimuli

Term
Define classical conditioning
Definition
Association of an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus

Ex. Pavlov's dogs

Term
Define operant conditioning
Definition
Positive or negative reinforcement alters the probability of a response. A subject relates a behavioral response to the consequences of that response.
Term
Where are memories stored in the brain?
Definition
All over, in different regions
Term
What sort of memory is associated with the cerebellum?
Definition
Some implicit memories associated with muscles

Ex. vestibulo-ocular reflex (maintains visual image as head moves)

Ex. conditioned eyeblink with tone and puff of air

Term
Where are many procedural memories stored?
Definition
In the neostriatum (caudate and putamen).

Ex. how to ride a bike, how to type, and how to write.

Term
Where are explicit memories generally stored?
Definition
In a multimodal association cortex, but different areas code different aspects
Term
List the general pathway to form a memory
Definition
1. Sensory input is relayed to medial temporal lobe
2. Amygdala attaches emotional significance
3. Hippocampus distributes the memory to appropriate regions of the cortex
Term
How do short term memories become long term?
Definition
Memory "consolidation" must occur, hippocampus and medial temporal lobe is required
Term
Describe synaptic plasticity
Definition
As memories are consolidated, networks of neurons are activated and built by long term potentiation and protein synthesis of new paths
Term
Define anterograde amnesia
Definition
The inability to learn new information
Term
Define retrograde amnesia
Definition
Inability to retrieve information (can’t remember)
Term
What sort of amnesia do lesions of the medial temporal lobe cause?
Definition
Typically anterograde amnesia, but recall of previous memories is present (although the loss of memory may go back three years or so).

Can learn new procedural memories


Girl online and hitch get acquainted



Girl online and hitch get acquainted



Girl online and hitch get acquainted





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